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Table 5 Average aerodynamic coefficient and power coefficient under different aspect ratio

From: Aerodynamics and dynamic stability of micro-air-vehicle with four flapping wings in hovering flight

λ With or Without Clap-and-fling effect L D P η
1 Without 6.145 10.843 10.489 1.452
With 5.952 12.841 10.596 1.371
3 Without 2.044 2.727 2.624 1.114
With 2.435 3.882 3.253 1.168
5 Without 1.939 2.119 2.631 1.026
With 2.080 2.753 2.936 1.022